Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid, very bitter compound and was isolated in its pure form and characterized for the first time by Gorter at 1911.
The structure of andrographolide has been analyzed by X-ray crystallographic method. Its systematic name is 3-[2-[decahydro-6-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-2-methylene-1-naphthalenyl] ethylidine]dihydro-4-hydroxy-2(3H)-furanone.
Plant source: leaves and bark of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae)
Physiochemical Properties : A colourless crystalline bicyclic diterpenoid lactone,bitter substance extracted from the stem and leaves
Studies on In Vitro antiviral activity: Andrographolide inhibits the parasites at their ring stage at the IC 50 value of 9.1.
A significant rise in the mean CD4(+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm(3) to 501 cells/mm(3); p = 0.002).
Inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4(+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals.( Calabrese C et al.,2000)
Studies on In vivo antiviral activity: Andrographolide –curcumin exhibited antimalarial activity by reducing parasitemia (29%) of malarial infections caused plasmodium falciparum.( Kirti Mishra, Aditya P. Dash, and Nrisingha Dey .,2011).
Genomic information: 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF389879.2 which codes for the production of HMGR enzyme is responsible for the accumulation of andrographolide.
Structure of Andrographolide